The World Wars | Europe

Video

It is noted that the World War I mapping section of the video failed to work. Therefore, it will be provided here.

Bibliography

World War I


Map of the 1915 Armenian Genocide in the Turkish Empire, https://www.armenian-genocide.org/map-full.html.

This source shows a detailed map of the routes of Armenian prisoners in the Ottoman Empire and which areas were prime sites of concentration camps, shootings and other massacres taking place. It is made by the Armenian National Institute, which is located in Washington D.C. It is a legal organization and works for wider recognition of the Armenian Genocide.

Westera, Rick. “Historical Atlas of Europe (25 October 1918): Collapse of the Central Powers.” Omniatlas, https://omniatlas.com/maps/europe/19181025/.

This map on Omniatlas shows the collapse of the Central Powers to revolutionary forces shortly before the end of the war. It shows the Bolshevik Revolution in the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and the independence of the West Ukranian People's Republic in Galicia. It also displays the Entente counteroffensive in the Western Front with a good amount of American troops being sent to France.

Westera, Rick. “Historical Atlas of Europe (8 November 1918): German Revolution.” Omniatlas, https://omniatlas.com/maps/europe/19181108/.

Rick Westera's Omniatlas map of the German Revolution shows Germany's obligation to surrender to the Entente as socialist Workers' and Soldiers' councils proclaimed revolution throughout the German state. The Entente began to pour troops into the Rhineland and quickly occupied Bulgaria as well. Following that, the wars taking place destroyed geopolitical stability and balance throughout the expanse of the Eastern European theater.

Westera, Rick. “Historical Atlas of Europe (11 November 1918): Armistice Day.” Omniatlas, https://omniatlas.com/maps/europe/19181111/.

The map of Armistice day shows the map of the European theatre just after surrender by the final Central Power, the Second German Empire. The treaty of Versaille was signed at this time, with the German surrender of Schleswig-Holstein, Alscace-Lorraine (Elass-Lothringen), and a majority of Prussia.

1914-1918-Online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War (WW1), https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/home.html.

The International Encyclopedia of the First World War was used for information on events in the First World War. Examples include offensives, such as the march on Verdun, massacres, counteroffensives, and declarations and entries of war by some countries. The progress of civil war in countries like Greece were documented in the events tab, given by the Encyclopedia.

Map of The 1915 Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Turkish Empire, https://genocideeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Map-of-the-Armenian-Genocide.pdf .

Genocide Education's map of the Armenian Genocide was created with help of the Armenian National Institute, and the Armenian-backed Nubrarian Library in Paris, France. It details where deportation centers were, the location of concentration camps among the Euphrates, and massacre sites near Lake Van.

Naayem, Joseph. “Shall This Nation Die?” Google Books, Chaldean Rescue, https://books.google.com/books?id=hokGAQAAIAAJ.

This book is on the Assyrian Genocide, and the plight of Christian Arabs at the height of this genocide against all minorities of the Exalted Ottoman State. The author is Assyrian and tells many personal sources from his parents, grandparents, and friends, describing the massacres and the attempt to eliminate the Assyrian minority within the Ottoman Empire to create an ethnostate for Turks.

“List of Massacres During the Greek Genocide.” Greek Genocide Resource Center, http://greek-genocide.net/index.php/overview/documentation/331-list-of-massacres.

The Greek Genocide Resource Center is an informative website on the chronology and events of the Greek Genocide. The mentioned page is a list of massacres on a map traced from primary sources that were used to document their occurences on the mapping part of this project. Most projected massacres of the Greek Genocide that are listed took place from 1913-1923.

Tawk, Rania Raad. “Le Centenaire De La Grande Famine Au Liban : Pour Ne Jamais Oublier - Rania Raad Tawk.” L'Orient-Le Jour, Lorientlejour.com, 17 Apr. 2015, https://www.lorientlejour.com/article/921155/le-centenaire-de-la-grande-famine-au-liban-pour-ne-jamais-oublier.html.

L'Orient de Jour talks about the Great Famine of Lebanon and how the Ottomans cut off supplies from Mount Lebanon in order to help the people in order to starve. This detailed Ottoman governmental orders and how the people starved without any help from the state or any Entente power.

“WW1: The Famine of Mount Lebanon.” BBC News, BBC, 24 Oct. 2014, https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-29719542/ww1-the-famine-of-mount-lebanon.

BBC's video on the Lebanese Genocide details primary sources from Lebanese Arabs at the time and how the Ottoman state among other things. 200,000 people would go on to die in the genocide detailed by the BBC, which went on to be about half of the population of the area of Mount Lebanon and the Lebanese dialect region.

Interwar Period

Kjeilen, Tore. “Arab Kingdom of Syria.” LookLex Encyclopaedia, Tore Kjeilen, http://i-cias.com/e.o/syria_arab_kingdom.htm.

Tore Kjelien's page on the Arab Kingdom of Syria on LookLex Encyclopedia describes the country's revolt against their French overlords. They held on to their territories for 2 months until French forces marched into Damascus, the capital of the Kingdom. After that, France's hold on the colony tightened as a reprisal against the people.

van Bruinessen, Martin. The Suppression of the Dersim Rebellion in Turkey (1937-38), 21 May 2013, https://web.archive.org/web/20130521155242/http://www.let.uu.nl/~Martin.vanBruinessen/personal/publications/Dersim_rebellion.pdf.

Martin van Bruinessen wrote on the suppression of the Dersim Rebellion and the following genocide that came after. About 40,000 people would go on to be killed by Turkish forces after having the revolt crushed by the Turks, which took a year and a third from 1937 to 1938.

Mayer, Arno J. The Furies: Violence and Terror in the French and Russian Revolutions. Princeton University Press, 2013.

The Furies, by Arno J. Mayer, told the story of Violence of Terror in the Russian Revolution. We used this in order to cite about the Russian Jewish Genocide, which led to the pogroms and murders of about 70,000 Jews during the Russian Revolution, where the White Movement and the Ukranian People's Republic perpetrated the majority of these.

Hitman_, (Youtuber). Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922): Every Day, YouTube, 9 Apr. 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKce4PNvg64.

Hitman_ gives a detailed mapping video on the Greco-Turkish war along with events going on the same time, like the Greek Genocide along with military defeats and victories by each side from 1918 until 1923, when the treaty of Lausanne finished the war, transferring Smyrna (Izmir) and Eastern Thrace back to the new Nationalist Turkish Republic.

Holquist, Peter. "Conduct Merciless Mass Terror": Decossackization on the Don, 1919, June 1997, https://www.jstor.org/stable/20171035?seq=1.

Peter Holquist's Decossackization on the Don details the Bolshevik genocide against the Don and Kuban Cossacks, where about 700,000 Cossacks were killed and about 2 million deported to Central and Northern Asia. The height of Decossackization occurred between the years of 1917-1933.

Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin, 1 Apr. 2011, http://arlindo-correia.com/040111.html.

Bloodlands talks about interwar genocides of lesser minorities by Hitler and Stalin, such as Stalin's Polish NKVD Operation and Hitler's genocide of the Romani people. Timothy Snyder worked to merge several articles into one fused source that largely explained the two dictators' personal ideology regarding minorities in their country, especially Central European and Asian ones, for Stalin exlusively.

Gitelman, Zvi. A Century of Ambivalence: the Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present. Indiana University Press, 2001.

Zvi Gitelman of the Indiana University Press wrote on the relations of Jews to their Russian Homeland. He details the white forces' pogroms against Jews in the Don, as well as many other things that the Ukranian People's Republic's atrocities against the Jews of the area.

Shorash, Shakhawan. “The Dersim Massacre: Turkish Destruction of the Kurdish People in the Dersim Region.” The Kurdistan Tribune, 10 May 2015, https://kurdistantribune.com/dersim-massacre-turkish-destruction-of-the-kurdish-people-in-the-dersim-region/.

The Kurdistan Tribune's article on the Dersim genocide is very informative as to monthly events among other things when there was a cut-off of information by the Turkish state. Shakhawan Shorash talks a lot about the unnecessary massacres by the Turkish Republic that were justified as instrumental to put down the rebellion faster and more efficiently.

World War II

Pamet, Sabrina Petra. “World War Two and the Partisan Struggle.” The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918-2005, Indiana University Press, 2006, pg. 113–160.

Sabrina P. Pamet wrote about the Partisan struggle among the Yugoslav socialists in the war against the German Reich from 1941-1945, in which over a million civilians from their country were killed. She goes on to describe, as well, the diplomatic battles between the Yugoslav Kingdom-in-exile and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia under the Croatian Marshal, Josep Bronz Tito.

Royde-Smith, John Graham, and Thomas A. Hughes. “Central Europe and the Balkans, 1940–41.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 7 Nov. 2019, https://www.britannica.com/event/World-War-II/Central-Europe-and-the-Balkans-1940-41.

Encyclopedia Brittanica explains the geopolitics of Central Europe and the Balkans, especially the German campaigns of 1941 against Greece and Yugoslavia. The occupations were not well received by the populace, that rose up against fascist forces, with especially large numbers within ELAS (Greece), NLAPDY (Yugoslavia), and the Antifascist Liberation Front (Albania.)

“MAJOR NAZI CAMPS IN EUROPE, JANUARY 1944.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/map/major-nazi-camps-in-europe-january-1944.

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum provided a very detailed map of major Nazi concentration and extermination camps throughout Eastern Europe and the Low Countries (Benelux.) It also elaborates on which ones were deportation sites, ghettos, concentration camps or simply death camps for killing Jews, Roma, Homosexuals, and other groups of people considered "undesirable" to the German Generalplan Ost.

“Historical Atlas of Europe (16 September 1939): Invasion of Poland.” Omniatlas, https://omniatlas.com/maps/europe/19390916/.

On August 31, 1939 the German Reich signed the Molotov Ribbentrop pact with the Soviet Union. The pact ensured no aggression between the 2 powers and that they would both invade Poland and partition it. The day after it was signed The Reich declared war on Poland, beginning WWII.

“Historical Atlas of Europe (21 April 1940): Invasion of Denmark and Norway.” Omniatlas, https://omniatlas.com/maps/europe/19400421/.

Norway and Sweden were exporting iron to Germany. Since it was a vital resource to the Germans Allied forces began to draw invasion plans of Norway to steal the resources and choke Germany. However, to secure the supply Germany invaded Norway and Denmark.

“Historical Atlas of Europe (3 November 1940): Italian Offensives.” Omniatlas, https://omniatlas.com/maps/europe/19401103/.

In response to the German success over France Italy started an invasion of Egypt and Greece. Both of which ended horribly and were flawed from the beginning, Germany unlike Italy had planned extensively for war and had prepared for war efficiently. Germany had to help in the end.

“Historical Atlas of Europe (31 August 1941): Operation Barbarossa.” Omniatlas, https://omniatlas.com/maps/europe/19410831/.

On June 22 Hitler began a surprise attack against the Soviet Union, breaking the non-aggression pact that had been made at the start of the war. Following the tactic of blitzkrieg, the Germans conquered territory at lightning speed. Reaching half the distance to Moscow in 2 months.

“Historical Atlas of Europe (30 September 1943): Fall of Mussolini.” Omniatlas, https://omniatlas.com/maps/europe/19430930/.

After Sicily fell to the allies Mussolini was overthrown. He was seen by the people as an incompetent leader who could not fight, which he was. The Germans also saw this and soon took over Italy, liberating Mussolini and establishing the I.S.R.

“Historical Atlas of Europe (20 June 1944): Normandy Landings.” Omniatlas, https://omniatlas.com/maps/europe/19440620/.

After Extensive Planning by the allies and many misinformation leaks the allies began the Normandy landings under Operation Neptune. They had leaked false information about landings at Pas-de-Calais in order to ensure an easy victory at the landing zone. This worked and allowed Allied forces a foothold in France.

“Historical Atlas of Europe (14 May 1945): German Surrender.” Omniatlas, https://omniatlas.com/maps/europe/19450514/.

After almost 6 years of war the Allied powers had reached the Reich from both sides. The Soviets captured Berlin and the Anglo-American forces had liberated the rest of western Europe. Hitler had committed suicide right before the Soviets took Berlin and all other Axis powers in the region had been neutralized.

Liveris, Dimitris. “World War II.” World War II - The European Theater: Every Day (1939-1945) | Videos | Histomaps | Wars, https://www.aegea.org/videos/histomaps/wars/world-war-ii.

Aegea's video on World War II in the European Theatre provides a broad geopolitical view throughout Europe from September 1st, 1939 until May 15th, 1945. After the death of Hitler, as it shows, the German Reich lost a lot of ground, but despite its death coming so near, many troops continued to fight until the last pocket was defeated by Yugoslav partisan forces on the 14-15th of May.

“The Holocaust.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 14 Oct. 2009, https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/the-holocaust.

The Holocaust is overviewed well by History.com, going back to the Interwar period to explain the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany at exactly the right time to blossom into Hitler and Mussolini's National Socialism as known today. It gives a chronology of events, and ones that would go on to shape the development of the Holocaust and the defeat of Nazi Germany.